Indian Architecture UPSC lesson | Indian Architecture for IAS, Ancient Architectures of India



We hope this video has given you some insights about Indian Architecture.
If you would like to know more here is the reference book used:
Concepts of Space in Traditional Indian Architecture
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IN this session, we are going to learn about the Indian architecture UPSC lesson. Indian architecture for IAS lesson is all about just introducing the basic concepts in Indian Architecture. You still have to study the Indian architecture books to get full detailed information. Our aim is to get you started on the Indian architectures such as Colonial Architecture, Indo Islamic Architecture, Ancient Architecture, Cave Architecture, Rock Cut, Temple Architecture. These are the types of Indian architecture.

Ancient architecture of India is rich in culture and tradition. Lets see some facts on it.

Colonial Architecture
Like all other aspects of society, the colonization of India also had a great impact on architecture. Colonization marked a new chapter in Indian architecture. Though the Dutch, the Portuguese and the French made their presence felt through their buildings but it was the English who had a lasting impact on architecture of India. In the beginning of the colonial rule there were attempts at creating authority through classical prototypes. In its later phase the colonial architecture culminated into what is called the Indo-Saracenic architecture. The Indo-Saracenic architecture combined the features of Hindu, Islamic and western elements.

Examples:
Santhome Church,Chennai
All Saints Cathedral, Allahabad
St. George’s Cathedral, Chennai
Gole Market, New Delhi
Medak Cathedral, Telangana
Indo Islamic Architecture
The medieval period saw great developments in the field of architecture. With the coming of Muslims to India, many new features came to be introduced in buildings. The development of Muslim Style of Architecture of this period can be called the Indo-Islamic Architecture or the Indian Architecture influenced by Islamic Art.
Examples:
Qutub Minar, New Delhi
Alai Darwaza, New Delhi
Agra Fort, Agra
Taj Mahal, Agra
Red Fort, New Delhi
Ancient Architecture
Indian architecture is as old as the history of the civilization. The earliest remains of recognizable building activity in the India dates back to the Indus Valley cities. Among India’s ancient architectural remains, the most characteristic are the temples, Chaityas, Viharas, Stupas and other religious structures.
Examples:
Akshardham Temple, Delhi
Virupaksha Temple, Karnataka
Karla Caves, Maharashtra
Ellora Caves, Maharashtra
Cave Architecture
The cave architecture in India is believed to have begun during the ancient time. These caves were used by Buddhist and Jain monks as places of worship and residence .
Examples:
Mahabalipuram, Tamilnadu
Ajanta Caves, Maharashtra
Bhaja Caves, Maharashtra
Bedse Caves, Maharashtra
Sittanavasal, Tamilnadu
Rock Cut
The Rock-cut structures present the most spectacular piece of ancient Indian art specimen. Most of the rock-cut structures were closely associated with various religions and religious activities. In the beginning, remarkable Buddhist and Jain rock-cut structures were built in areas such as Bihar in the east and Maharashtra in the west. Numerous caves were excavated by the Buddhist monks for prayer and residence purposes. The best example of this is Chaityas (prayer halls) and viharas (monasteries).
Examples:
Kailasa temple, Ellora
Pancha Rathas, Mahabalipuram
Barabar Caves, Bihar
Badami Cave Temples, Karnataka
Ajanta Cave, Maharashtra
Temple Architecture
In ancient India, temple architecture of high standard developed in almost all regions. The distinct architectural style of temple construction in different parts was a result of geographical, climatic, ethnic, racial, historical and linguistic diversities. Ancient Indian temples are classified in three broad types. This classification is based on different architectural styles, employed in the construction of the temples. Three main style of temple architecture are the Nagara or the Northern style, the Dravida or the Southern style and the Vesara or Mixed style. But at the same time there are also some regional styles of Bengal, Kerala and the Himalayan areas.
Examples:
Brihadeeswarar Temple, Thanjavur
Jagadamba Temple, Madhya Pradesh
Sun Temple, Modhera
Konark Sun Temple, Orissa
Chennakeshava Temple, Karnataka

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