Treaties Recognition Week: Canada By Treaty Exhibition

James K. Bird, Dr. Heidi Bohaker (co-creator of the exhibition) and Nathan Tidridge (commentator) discussed their travelling exhibition “Canada by Treaty,” which explains Canada’s history of treaty-making with Indigenous peoples.

Canada by Treaty, which originally took the form of a series of printed display boards, has been exhibited throughout the three University of Toronto campuses and in other prominent Toronto locations. The exhibition explains some of the ways Canada has historically failed to live up to the spirit of its treaty obligations — particularly through its residential school policy.

“On the one hand, the government was signing treaties, but at the same time it was apprehending children and putting them into residential schools,” James says. “We have this history of two stories being told: one of agreeing to land settlements, and the other of taking away Indigenous language and culture. It’s a story of giving with one hand and taking with the other.”

Visit the “Canada By Treaty” online exhibition:

For more information about the John H. Daniels Faculty of Architecture, Landscape, and Design at the University of Toronto, visit us at


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